Fact sheet: PAHs in extender oils for tyres

Effective from 1 January 2010, there is a ban on the import, sale and use of extender oils for tyres and treads if such oils contain more than:

  • 1 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene
  • 10 mg/kg of the PAHs listed below in total

There is also a ban on the import or sale of tyres and treads produced using oils which exceed the limits.
The regulations apply to 8 types of PAH:

  • Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); CAS no. 50-32-8
  • Benzo[e]pyrene (BeP); CAS no. 192-97-2
  • Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA); CAS no. 56-55-3
  • Chrysene (CHR); CAS no. 218-01-9
  • Benzo(b)fluoroanthene (BbFA); CAS no. 205-99-2
  • Benzo(j)fluoroanthene (BjFA); CAS no. 205-82-3
  • Benzo(k)fluoroanthene (BkFA); CAS no. 207-08-9
  • Dibenzo(a, h)anthracene (DBAhA); CAS no. 53-70-3

There are no exemptions from the regulations.

Inspections every six months

The producer or importer must check that the limits are being complied with at least once every six months. Inspection is also required when any major changes are made to operations.
The limits are being complied with if a test based on the IP 346:1998 standard method shows that the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the extender oil is less than 3 per cent of the mass.
For finished tyres and treads, the limits are being complied with if a test based on ISO standard 21461 shows they do not exceed a limit of 0.35 Bay protons.

The regulations aim to protect human health

The use of certain PAHs in extender oils in tyres must be limited to protect human health and the environment. These substances can cause cancer, hereditary genetic damage and foetal damage.

Importers, distributors and users are responsible

Anyone who imports, sells or uses extender oils for tyres, or imports or distributes tyres or treads for retreading purposes is responsible for ensuring compliance with the PAH limits.
The Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical inspectors monitor compliance with the regulations and will ensure that illegal situations are brought into compliance. This may involve withdrawing the product from the Danish market, or making the product legal in some other way. Anyone who breaches the regulations may additionally face a fine or prison sentence of up to two years.

More information

The statutory order is available (in Danish) at the Retsinfo website:
Ministry of the Environment Statutory Order no 1279 of 5 December 2006 on extender oils containing certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons used in the manufacture of tyres and tyre components .

The Danish statutory order is based on an EU directive available on the EUR-Lex website:
EU Directive 2005/69/EC on restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in extender oils and tyres)

Back to the list of Fact Sheets